A Rehabilitation program for prevention and management of Osteoporosis

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Osteoporosis is defined as a skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone strength predisposing a person to an increased risk of fracture. Modern Rehabilitation position is that prevention and treatment of osteoporosis should not focus only on bone, ignoring muscle function and balance, elements directly related to illness, which protect from falls and fractures.

The evaluation of osteoporotic patients begins with the history which includes information on risk factors for osteoporosis. Furthermore, we need to consider the physical, functional, psychological and social situation of the patient and before starting the therapeutic approach to assess the nutritional status and drug treatment of osteoporosis and the accompanying disease.

During the program customized training is provided to carry out daily activities safely in individuals belonging to populations increased risk for osteoporosis. The training includes the following simple loading exercises to maintain fitness and bone mass in elderly people and generally people with low bone density. Moreover, according to the general health of the elderly add resistance exercises that are beneficial for muscle and bone strength. Devices for walking aids and therapist are necessary where motor deficits. Particular attention must be paid to improving the balance throughout the program.

In postmenopausal women we suggest aerobic, resistance, balance and flexibility exercises in combination with appropriate medication and dietary guidelines. Given the close interaction between osteoporosis and falls, prevention of fracture should be based on factors related to bone strength and risk factors for falls. Fractures are the most serious complication of osteoporosis and can be prevented through interventions at the level of education, environmental modification, aids and learning exercises to reduce falls and fractures from falls. Rehabilitation after vertebral fracture includes education on proper posture and body mechanics to reduce the kyphosis and safety in carrying out daily activities strengthening the back muscles. The aim is to reduce pain, improve mobility and quality of life of the patient. The use of modern spine orthosis has been shown to help reduce pain and improve posture. The conservative pain relief in vertebral fracture can be helped by specific medication and implementation of appropriate physical agents and hydrotherapy.

Prevention of hip fractures includes the identification and treatment of potential causes of falls, balance exercise programs, coordination and strengthening of the hip muscles. After a hip fracture is usually required a long recovery program which should start immediately after surgery.

Successes of rehabilitation program after hip fracture is the reversal of functional decline and return the patient to the highest level of independence while improving the overall quality of life

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